Carbon Steel

Carbon steel composition

Carbon steels and alloy steels are designated by a four digit number, where the first digit indicates the main alloying element(s), the second digit indicates the secondary alloying element(s), and the last two digits indicate the amount of carbon, in hundredths of a percent (basis points) by weight. For example, a 1060 steel is a plain-carbon steel containing 0.60 wt% C

Carbon steel, also called plain carbon steel, is a malleable, iron-based metal containing carbon, small amounts of manganese, and other elements that are inherently present. These elements are manganese, with a 1.65% maximum, silicon, with a 0.60% maximum, and copper, with a 0.60% maximum. Other elements may be present in quantities too small to affect its properties. Steels can either be cast to shape like Carbon steel Pipe, Carbon steel Pipe fittings, Carbon steel flanges or wrought into various mill forms from which finished parts are formed, machined, forged, stamped, or otherwise shaped.

GRADES OF CARBON & ALLOY STEEL WE SUPPLY

There are four types of carbon steel based on the amount of carbon present in the alloy. Lower carbon steels are softer and more easily formed, and steels with a higher carbon content are harder and stronger, but less ductile, and they become more difficult to machine and weld. Below are the properties of the grades of carbon steel we supply:

  • Low Carbon Steel – Composition of 0.05%-0.25% carbon and up to 0.4% manganese. Also known as mild steel, it is a low-cost material that is easy to shape. While not as hard as higher-carbon steels, carburizing can increase its surface hardness.
  • Medium Carbon Steel – Composition of 0.29%-0.54% carbon, with 0.60%-1.65% manganese. Medium carbon steel is ductile and strong, with long-wearing properties.
  • High Carbon Steel – Composition of 0.55%-0.95% carbon, with 0.30%-0.90% manganese. It is very strong and holds shape memory well, making it ideal for springs and wire.
  • Very High Carbon Steel - Composition of 0.96%-2.1% carbon. Its high carbon content makes it an extremely strong material. Due to its brittleness, this grade requires special handling.

Carbon steel properties

AISI 12L14 Steel, cold drawn, 19-38 mm round

COMPONENT
WT. %
C
Max 0.15
Fe
97.91 – 98.7
Mn
0.85 – 1.15
P
0.04 – 0.09
Pb
0.15 – 0.35
S
0.26 – 0.35

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
METRIC
ENGLISH
COMMENTS
Density
7.87 g/cc
0.284 lb/in³
Typical for steel

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
METRIC
ENGLISH
COMMENTS
Hardness, Brinell
163
163
Hardness, Knoop
184
184
Converted from Brinell hardness
Hardness, Rockwell B
84
84
Converted from Brinell hardness
Hardness, Vickers
170
170
Converted from Brinell hardness
Tensile Strength, Ultimate
540 MPa
78300 psi
Tensile Strength, Yield
415 MPa
60200 psi
Elongation at Break
10%
10%
Reduction of Area
35%
35%
Modulus of Elasticity
200 GPa
29000 ksi
Typical for Steel
Bulk Modulus
140 GPa
20300 ksi
Typical for Steel
Poisson’s Ratio
0.29
0.29
Typical for Steel
Machinability
160%
160%
Based on 100% machinability for
AISI 1212 steel
Shear Modulus
80 GPa
11600 ksi
Typical for Steel

ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
METRIC
ENGLISH
COMMENTS
Electrical Resistivity
1.74e-005
ohm-cm
1.74e-005
ohm-cm
Typical for steel

THERMAL PROPERTIES
METRIC
ENGLISH
COMMENTS
CTE, linear 20°C
11.5 µm/m-°C
6.39 µin/in-°F
CTE, linear 250°C
12.2 µm/m-°C
6.78 µin/in-°F
Converted from Brinell hardness
CTE, linear 500°C
13.9 µm/m-°C
7.72 µin/in-°F
Converted from Brinell hardness
CTE, linear 1000°C
14.7 µm/m-°C
8.17 µin/in-°F
Converted from Brinell hardness
Specific Heat Capacity
0.472 J/g-°C
0.113 BTU/lb-°F
Thermal Conductivity
51.9 W/m-K
360 BTU-in
/hr-ft²-°F

Chemical Requirements Carbon Alloy Steels used in Piping applications

ASTM A53

Specification for Seamless and Welded Black and Hot-Dipped Galvanized Steel Pipe
Composition, max, %
Element C Mn P S Cu (1) Ni (1) Cr (1) Mo (1) V (1)
Type S (seamless pipe)
Grade A 0.25 0.95 0.05 0.045 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.15 0.08
Grade B 0.30 1.20 0.05 0.045 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.15 0.08
Type E (electric-resistance-welded)
Grade A 0.25 0.95 0.05 0.045 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.15 0.08
Grade B 0.30 1.20 0.05 0.045 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.15 0.08
Type F (furnace-welded pipe)
Grade A 0.30 1.20 0.05 0.045 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.15 0.08

Note:

  1. The total composition for these five elements shall not exceed 1.00%.

ASTM A105
Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications

Composition, %
Element C Mn P S Si Cu Ni Cr Mo V
  0.35
max
0.60-
1.05
0.035
max
0.040
max
0.10-
0.35
0.40
max (1)
0.40
max (1)
0.30
max (1-2)
0.12
max (1-2)
0.08
max

Notes:

  1. The sum of Copper, Nickel, Niobium, Molybdenum and Vanadium shall not exceed 1.00%.
  2. The sum of Niobium and Molybdenum shall not exceed 0.32%.
    Note: For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified carbon maximum (0.35%), an increase of 0.06% Manganese above the specified maximum (1.05%) will be permitted up to a maximum of 1.35%.

ASTM A106
Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service

Composition, %
Element C
max
Mn P
max
S
max
Si
min
Cr
max (3)
Cu
max (3)
Mo
max (3)
Ni
max (3)
V
max (3)
Grade A 0.25 (1) 0.27-
0.93
0.035 0.035 0.10 0.40 0.40 0.15 0.40 0.08
Grade B 0.30 (2) 0.29-
1.06
0.035 0.035 0.10 0.40 0.40 0.15 0.40 0.08
Grade C 0.35 (2) 0.29-
1.06
0.035 0.035 0.10 0.40 0.40 0.15 0.40 0.08

Notes:

  1. For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified Carbon maximum, an increase of 0.06% Manganese above the specified maximum will be permitted up to a maximum of 1.35%.
  2. Unless otherwise specified by the purchaser, for each reduction of 0.01% below the specified Carbon maximum, an increase of 0.06% Manganese above the specified maximum will be permitted up to a maximum of 1.65%.
  3. These five elements combined shall not exceed 1%.

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